STATE AND STAGES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

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THE STATE OF DEVELOPMENT

Development is a life long process, individuals change both physically and psychologically and we encounter new adjustment problem throughout life. These changes affect the individuals attitudes, cognitive processes and behaviour.

Of all mammals, human beings are the most immature at birth and require the longest period of development before they are capable of all activities and skills The human offspring is dependant for many years and requires a long period of learning and interaction with others before becoming self-sufficient.

Adult personality, behaviour and character are influenced by the events that occur during the early years of life. The human development is a continuous interaction between heredity and environment At conception a major number of a person’s characteristic are already determined.

WHAT ARE THE STAGES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT???

  • THE INFANT
  • ADOLESCENCE

 

THE INFANT

The new born infant seems to spend most of its time sleeping, feeding and crying The infant has been found to discriminate difference in taste and smell. They can listen to unfamiliar sounds and can follow moving objects with their eyes but their attention is very short ,Growth and changes occur in children more rapidly during the first two years of life than at any other period of life Physical skills like sitting, crawling, reaching for an object and walking depend on maturation of the muscles, nervous system and other body parts. All babies achieve this skill without special training.

A number of experiments have shown that children who are brought up in stimulating environments perform better than children who lacked close and caring relationship with adults during their early lives.

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ADOLESCENCE

This refers to the period of transition from childhood to adulthood.This spans roughly from age 12 to late teens when physical growth is completed. During this period, the young person develops to sexual maturity. He establishes his personal identity ,he now faces the task of deciding on a profession to earn a living ,it is a period to develop skills and prepare for the future.

This is a period of sporadic growth accompanied by development of reproductive organs. Both sexes develop pubic hair, the girl’s breasts enlarges and the beard and deep voice develop in the boys. The girls experience the mensuration and the boys have the first appearance of sperm cells. There is wide variation in the age which puberty is reached. It range between 11 years 9 months and 17 for most people. The girls usually mature about two years earlier than the boys

The major task confronting adolescence is to develop a sense of individual identity. He wants to find answers to the question ‘who am I ‘where am I going .This sense of identity grows gradually,their values and moral standards are close to that of their parent’s view of them. The extent to which parents, peers and teachers project consistent values, the easier for the search for identity for the adolescent.

 

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