MEANING OF FEDERATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF A FEDERATION

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WHAT IS FEDERATION???

Federation can be seen as a group of states that join together to form a larger group In relation to government. federation can be said to be a federal system of government. It is one in which governmental powers that exist in the country are shared between a central government that represents the whole country and component units, that could be regions, states, provinces, etc. Examples of countries enjoying federation are the: United States of America, Brazil, India Belgium and Nigeria.

NEED FOR FEDERAL SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT

  1. National Integration:Integration means combining things in a way that makes them more effective.Federal system paves way for national integration by uniting people of different political, social, geographical, cultural, religious, historical and languages together without destroying their identity and separate existence.
  2. Unity in Diversity:federal system ensures unity in any country where it is adopted.There are regions or states that come together to form a federation. In a country like Nigeria, there is unity in diversity among the various states.
  3. Proper Control:Federal system makes the control of activities of states, that is the federating units,very easy since each state has the constitutional rights and independence to act as it pleases the people of the federating units. It is unlike unitary system where only the central government has power to control. Due to sharing of power among a federal government and the component governments, the presence of government is felt everywhere in the country. Therefore, there will not be breakdown of law and order anywhere in the nation.
  4. Pooling Together of Resources:For economic and administrative purposes, the federation enables the people of different geographical and regional origins to pool their natural, human and material resources together as an economically strong nation.
  5. Defense:Federal system enables a nation to be well defended and secured. Tribes that are not strong enough will enjoy defence and security of the strong ones within the same nation.
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CHARACTERISTICS OF A FEDERATION

  1. There is division of government powers between the central and component governments of the regions or states.
  2. There is supremacy of the central government. constitution.
  3. The different governments derive their powers from the constitution.
  4. There is supremacy of the constitution
  5. The constitution is rigid
  6. The constitution, as a set of rules and regulations, identifies the functions and powers of the organs of government.
  7. In a federation, the constitution also states the duties of the government and the rights of the citizens.

 

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