Federalism is a system of government whereby the constitutional power of the country is shared between the three tiers of government.
As it is traditionally known that the machinery that sees to the administration of a state and control it is government, now, federation is where government reside, a federation in another sense is a defined territory inhabited by people of different culture, belief, perception, language and so on with a defined legitimate government.
A federation is one that has possessed sovereignty i.e has the supreme power to dictate for her people or stay firm to the constitution of the land without the fear of intimidation from any other countries of the world, be it large, popular, powerful, well known or unrecognized at all.
A federation is said to be the highest level of a state in the study of government, State is said to be as a politically organized group of people inhabiting a geographical territory through constitutional means, of which federation is it highest level by being divided into possible part for proper administration.
FEATURES OF A FEDERATION
- DIVISION OF POWER : In a federation there is constitutional division of power between the tiers of government i.e the Federal which is headed by the president of the federation, the State which is headed by the governor and the local government where the chairman serves as the head of the administration, though local government is a legal entity i.e it is created not permanent and for that you can sue local government to court so as local government can also sue another fellow, The federal government in a federation possessed the utmost power and it is the only legitimate body that can work on the exclusive list of the country, the Exclusive list includes those administrations or things affecting the country globally while the state which serve as the second tiers of government is one of the two (Federal and State ) who can work on the concurrent list of a country though is there is a bone of contention between this two tiers the federal government prevails and the last is the local government that serves as the third tier and brings government closer to people at the local level, the local government is one of the legally recognized two ( State and Local ) that can work on the Residual list but in a case of misunderstanding between the two tiers, the state government prevails.
- WRITTEN CONSTITUTION : The constitution of a state must be written, i.e contain and codified in only one document, a federal (federation) constitution must be written for it is the combination of many state, culture believe, language that comes together as one for political administration. countries like USA with 50 states uses written constitution, countries like Nigeria with 36 states uses written constitution.
- RIGID CONSTITUTION : the constitution of a federal state or a federation must be rigid because it has to pass through some procedure before it can be amend, one of the state cannot decide for all so it has to go through some procedures like sampling the people of the country opinion, the presence of 2-3 majority of the legislature, the assent of the executive, the constitution of every federal state is always rigid and written so that one party don’t seeks her own interest and cause pain to others.
- INDEPENDENT JUDICIARY : Dispute is the disagreement between two parties that quarrel, dispute settling is one of the main responsibilities of Judiciary and of which if judiciary is not independent could be manipulated, dispute happens between state to state of a federation, federal to state, local government to another but with the help of an independent judiciary the case are solved in the light of the constitution.
- DUAL CITIZENSHIP : Citizens in a federation must be entitled to be dual as for the state they are domiciled ( where you are given birth ) of and other state of the federation, after all that is one of the main purpose of coming together, to eradicate the belief that multi-culture can’t work in one place.
- CONSTITUTION : The constitution of every federal state must be above all entity and bodies in a state i.e there must be supremacy of the constitution over everyone inhabiting a federation, be it you are part of the three arms of government or you are the president, even the Constitution must surpass the constitution makes for it is written in the federation book that supremacy of the constitution is the first to respect.
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